Your credit score is a measure of the likelihood that you will pay your debt as agreed. The lower your credit score, the more likely you are to default on your debt. Borrowers with higher credit scores represent a lower risk to the lender.
Most lenders rely on your credit score to determine eligibility for private student loans. Your credit score can also affect the cost of your debt, with lower interest rates and fees reserved for borrowers with better credit scores. This is in contrast to federal education loans, which generally do not depend on your credit score.
What is a Credit Score?
A credit score is an objective measure of credit risk. It summarizes the information from your credit history into a single number. This forms a basis for comparing borrowers. The most popular credit score is the FICO score developed by Fair Isaac Corporation. (The name 'FICO' is derived from the initials of the company name.)
Generally, the FICO score depends on the following factors:
|Length of Credit History||15%|
|Types of Credit Used|
The recency, frequency and severity of credit activity also have an impact.
How do Federal Student Loans use Credit Scores?
The Stafford, Perkins and PLUS loans do not depend on your credit score. The Stafford and Perkins loans are available entirely without regard to your credit history. The PLUS loan, however, requires that the borrower not have an adverse credit history.
An adverse credit history is defined as being more than 90 days late on any debt or having any Title IV debt within the past five years subjected to default determination, bankruptcy discharge, foreclosure, repossession, tax lien, wage garnishment, or write-off.
How do Private Student Loans use Credit Scores?
Education lenders generally use the FICO score in combination with other factors to determine eligibility for private student loans. The other criteria typically involve binary (yes/no) decisions, such as debt-to-income ratio and recent bankruptcies.
Most education lenders break their interest rates and fees into five tiers, based on the borrower's credit score. About 20% of the borrowers get the best rate, followed by 35%, 20%, 10% and 15%. Each tier has an interest rate that is 1% or 2% higher than the previous tier. This means that borrowers with the worst credit scores can have interest rates that are 5% to 6% higher than the interest rates charged to borrowers with excellent credit. The fees are also higher by as much as 9%, although some lenders roll higher fees into the interest rates.
This means that borrowers with bad credit scores may have monthly payments that are 20% to 40% higher and pay two-thirds to 100% more interest over the lifetime of the loan as borrowers with excellent credit scores. That's as much as double the interest!
If you have a bad credit score, a cosigner with a good credit score can make you eligible for a private student loan. Even if you have a good credit score, a cosigner with a better credit score can potentially reduce the interest rate and fees you'll have to pay on the loan. This is because most lenders use the better of the two credit scores to determine eligibility and the cost of credit.
Another method of getting a better interest rate is to agree to make payments on the loan while you are in school. Many lenders give better rates for borrowers to begin repayment immediately or make interest-only payments during the in-school period.
If you are denied a private student loan, ask the lender about their appeals process. Sometimes they will make an exception if an unusual circumstance lead to the denial, especially if the negative event is not likely to occur again. Appeals will also be accepted if the denial was the result of inaccurate information on your credit report that was subsequently corrected.
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The Color of Credit: Mortgage Discrimination, Research Methodology, and Fair-Lending Enforcement: Mortgage Discrimination, Research Methodology and Fair-lending Enforcement
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